Despite numerous attempts, the surviving texts have not been deciphered, and without decipherment it is not certain that they are actually writing. During the time of the epidemics they made mass graves that were semi-pyramidal stone structures. This movement over the Easter hotspot has resulted in the Easter Seamount Chain, which merges into the Nazca Ridge further to the east. Designs and images were carved out of rock for a variety of reasons: to create totems, to mark territory, or to memorialize a person or event. Easter Island's latitude is similar to that of Caldera, Chile, and it lies 3,510 km (2,180 mi) west of continental Chile at its nearest point (between Lota and Lebu in the Biobío Region). Possible means by which the statues were moved include employment of a miro manga erua, a Y-shaped sledge with cross pieces, pulled with ropes made from the tough bark of the hau tree[90] and tied around the statue's neck. In some cases the tattoos were considered a receptor for divine strength or mana. Plantations were often located farther inland, next to foothills, inside open-ceiling lava tubes, and in other places protected from the strong salt winds and salt spray affecting areas closer to the coast. "Since the year 2000 we started to lose tuna, which is the basis of the fishing on the island, so then we began to take the fish from the shore to feed our families, but in less than two years we depleted all of it", Pakarati said. While sculpting was going on, the volcanic stone was splashed with water to soften it. The native islanders who carved them used only stone hand chisels, mainly basalt toki, which lie in place all over the quarry. Recent experimental recreations have proven that it is fully possible that the moai were literally walked from their quarries to their final positions by use of ropes, casting doubt on the role that their existence plays in the environmental collapse of the island.[77]. The Rapa Nui people had a Stone Age culture and made extensive use of local stone: The large stone statues, or moai, for which Easter Island is famous, were carved in the period 1100–1680 AD (rectified radio-carbon dates). Easter Island is one of the most remote inhabited islands in the world. Like its Chilean counterpart it probably took close to 100 years to reach adult height. [5], Chile annexed Easter Island in 1888. [3] Barbara A. It was first reported by French missionary Eugène Eyraud in 1864. : Terry Hunt and Carl Lipo: The Statues That Walked", "Easter Islanders' Weapons Were Deliberately Not Lethal", "Easter Island Statue Project Field Season IV", "Anger on Easter Island after truck crashes into sacred stone statue", "Truck Crashes into an Easter Island Statue", "Easter Island musical stone went from priceless to worthless / Boing Boing", "Pu o Hiro (Hiro's Trumpet) – Easter Island, Chile", "Collections: Arts of the Pacific Islands: Lizard Figure (Moko Miro). At least six species of land birds were known to live on the island. [25]:238,504 The Spanish were amazed by the "standing idols", all of which were erect at the time. ", "Easter Island, What to learn from the puzzles? According to oral tradition, the first settlement was at Anakena. He returned to Tahiti in December 1888. Chickens were the sole domestic animal, though the "chicken coops" carved of stone which still dot the fields of the island were most likely tombs from which the chickens obtained calcium and phosphorus in the form of bone meal. The LEED certified Explora Rapa Nui Lodge Easter Island hotel is both stylish and environmentally friendly. It was believed that the living had a symbiotic relationship with the dead in which the dead provided everything that the living needed (health, fertility of land and animals, fortune etc.) Peiser claims that these reports indicate that large trees existed at that time, which is perhaps contradicted by the Bouman quote above. ", "EASTER ISLAND: MORE THAN JUST STATUES- Tapati Festival on Rapa Nui", Primeros datos del Censo: Hay 37.626 mujeres más que hombres en la V Región, "TC allana camino para modificar ley que atenúa penas por violación y abuso sexual en Rapa Nui", "Were rats behind Easter Island mystery? Petroglyphs are pictures carved into rock, and Easter Island has one of the richest collections in all Polynesia. About a quarter of the island's population succumbed along with him. Rapa Nui (in lingua nativa letteralmente "grande isola/roccia"), nota comunemente col nome di Isola di Pasqua, (in lingua spagnola Isla de Pascua) è un'isola dell' Oceano Pacifico meridionale … The statue quarry, only one kilometre (5⁄8 mile) from the coast with an impressive cliff 100 m (330 ft) high, was not explored by Europeans until well into the 19th century. He notes that they stopped making statues at that time and started destroying the ahu. Easter Island is considered part of Insular Chile. The remains of palm stumps in different places indicate that humans caused the trees to fall because in large areas, the stumps were cut efficiently. The stone chisels were sharpened by chipping off a new edge when dulled. Winters are relatively mild. Apprendi la loro lingua e la deliziosa gastronomia. The moai were believed to be the living faces of ancestors and had all been toppled by 1868. [112] The Tapati is centered around a competition between two families/ clans competing in various competitions to earn points. Tahiti, further depleted the population, reducing it to a low of 111 native inhabitants in 1877. [5][6], Rapa Nui are believed to have settled Easter Island between 300 and 1200 CE. [24] When James Cook visited the island, one of his crew members, a Polynesian from Bora Bora, Hitihiti, was able to communicate with the Rapa Nui. This idea that Rapa Nui society collapsed came out of the imbalance between general resources present on the island, mainly population, timber and food sources, and the energy- and resource-intensive feat of transporting and raising the moai. [14], Agriculture on Easter Island shows signs of intensification before European arrival, necessary because of its climate which had an excess of wind and a low amount of rainfall for the area. [8] Felipe González de Ahedo visited the Rapa Nui in 1770 and claimed the island for Spain on a document which the islanders wrote on in rongorongo, the now undecipherable Rapa Nui script. Tu'u ko Iho is viewed as the leader who brought the statues and caused them to walk. He made a detailed map of the bay, including his anchorage points, as well as a more generalised map of the island, plus some illustrations.[36]. The trans-Neptunian dwarf planet Makemake is named after this creator deity. Immergiti nella cultura rapa nui interagendo con i suoi abitanti. [53], In January 2011, the UN Special Rapporteur on Indigenous People, James Anaya, expressed concern about the treatment of the indigenous Rapa Nui by the Chilean government, urging Chile to "make every effort to conduct a dialogue in good faith with representatives of the Rapa Nui people to solve, as soon as possible the real underlying problems that explain the current situation". However radiocarbon dating concludes that other sites preceded Anakena by many years, especially the Tahai by several centuries. Easter Island is a volcanic high island, consisting mainly of three extinct coalesced volcanoes: Terevaka (altitude 507 metres) forms the bulk of the island, while two other volcanoes, Poike and Rano Kau, form the eastern and southern headlands and give the island its roughly triangular shape. La storia dei primi abitanti della piccola isola vulcanica di Rapa Nui, Situata al largo della costa del Cile, ormai da molto tempo incuriosisce archeologi. [98][99], Tukuturi, an unusual bearded kneeling moai, All fifteen standing moai at Ahu Tongariki, excavated and restored in the 1990s, Ahu Akivi, one of the few inland ahu, with the only moai facing the ocean. Priests, warriors and chiefs had more tattoos than the rest of the population, as a symbol of their hierarchy. The high chief was the eldest descendant through first-born lines of the island's legendary founder, Hotu Matu'a. The island is about 24.6 km (15 1⁄4 mi) long by 12.3 km (7 3⁄4 mi) at its widest point; its overall shape is triangular. Rapa Nui | © Eleonora Dal Prà Cile isole, siti archeologici, sud america È l’insediamento abitato più isolato del mondo, conosciuto a livello planetario per i quasi mille moai disseminati nel territorio. By the 18th century, islanders were largely sustained by farming, with domestic chickens as the primary source of protein.[32]. At that time, several islanders said they could understand the writing, but according to tradition, only ruling families and priests were ever literate, and none survived the slave raids and subsequent epidemics. [3] This was exacerbated by the loss of land birds and the collapse in seabird populations as a source of food. In 1995, UNESCO named Easter Island a World Heritage Site, with much of the island protected within Rapa Nui National Park. Other subjects include sea turtles, Komari (vulvas) and Makemake, the chief god of the Tangata manu or Birdman cult. [15], According to Barthel (1974), oral tradition has it that the island was first named Te pito o te kainga a Hau Maka, "The little piece of land of Hau Maka". Oggi a Rapa Nui arrivano molti turisti e la maggior parte visita la cava di Rano Raraku, dove venivano prelevate le pietre per quasi tutti i moai. A carving was abandoned when a large, dense and hard lithic fragment was encountered. [citation needed]. [citation needed]. Six years later, only 111 people lived on Easter Island, and only 36 of them had any offspring. In August 2018, a law took effect prohibiting non-residents from staying on the island for more than 30 days. [57], Terevaka formed around 0.77 Ma of tholeiitic to alkali basalts, followed by the collapse of its summit into a caldera. Roggeveen named it Paasch-Eyland (18th-century Dutch for "Easter Island"). A distinguishing characteristic of Rapa Nui statues is the use of shell or coral inlaid with obsidian to represent eyes. [58], In the first half of the 20th century, steam reportedly came out of the Rano Kau crater wall. [39] Those who remained were mostly older men. [citation needed], Crops grown on Easter Island included sweet potatoes, yams, taro, bananas and sugarcane. Through the interpretation of Hitihiti, Cook learned the statues commemorated their former high chiefs, including their names and ranks. The Chilean leg of the Red Bull Cliff Diving World Series takes place on the Island of Rapa Nui. In 1871 the missionaries, having fallen out with Dutrou-Bornier, evacuated all but 171 Rapa Nui to the Gambier islands. [citation needed] Before the arrival of humans, Easter Island had vast seabird colonies containing probably over 30 resident species, perhaps the world's richest. Loss of large trees meant that residents were no longer able to build seaworthy vessels, significantly diminishing their fishing abilities. This page was last edited on 1 February 2021, at 11:23. Alexander Salmon, Jr., a son of an English Jewish merchant and a Pōmare Dynasty prince, eventually worked to repatriate workers from his inherited copra plantation. [citation needed] The nearest continental point lies in central Chile near Concepción, at 3,512 kilometres (2,182 mi). The winning team has their candidate crowned 'queen' of the island for the next year. Under the Köppen climate classification, the climate of Easter Island is classified as a tropical rainforest climate (Af) that borders on a humid subtropical climate (Cfa). No one was injured in the incident. [3][clarification needed] Protests in 2010 and 2011 by the indigenous Rapa Nui on Easter Island, objecting to the creation of a marine park and reserve,[4] have led to clashes with Chilean police. [23] However, recent research suggests that sweet potatoes may have spread to Polynesia by long-distance dispersal long before the Polynesians arrived. Rongorongo, a system of glyphs discovered in the 1800s, is believed to represent an older version of the Rapa Nui language. The phrase appears to have been used in the same sense as the designation of "Land's End" at the tip of Cornwall. 'Reports of the Norwegian Archaeological Expedition to Easter Island and the East Pacific'", Volume 1. Easter Island, together with its closest neighbour, the tiny island of Isla Sala y Gómez 415 kilometres (258 mi) farther east, is recognized by ecologists as a distinct ecoregion, the Rapa Nui subtropical broadleaf forests. [10][11] Tattoos, as well as other forms of art in Rapa Nui, blends anthropomorphic and zoomorphic imagery. La storia della popolazione che viveva su Rapa Nui o, come più nota, sull’Isola di Pasqua, scritta basandosi su ciò che trovarono i primi coloni, potrebbe essere completamente riscritta. [92][93][94] This might have been managed by as few as 15 people, supported by the following evidence: There is debate regarding the effects of the monument creation process on the environment. Anche loro si chiamano Rapa Nui. In the case of Rapa Nui, recovered plant seed shells showed markings of being gnawed on by rats. Of the 313 known ahu, 125 carried moai—usually just one, probably because of the shortness of the moai period and transportation difficulties. Perdonatemi la parafrasi ma oggi il mio viaggio è una sorpresa, perché vi porto all’isola di Pasqua. A major factor that contributed to the extinction of multiple plant species was the introduction of the Polynesian rat. Roggeveen allegedly set sail either in search of Juan Fernandez Islands or David's Island but instead arrived at Easter Island on April 5, 1722 (Easter Sunday). This was photographed by the island's manager, Mr. Related stone structures called Tupa look very similar to the hare oka, except that the Tupa were inhabited by astronomer-priests and located near the coast, where the movements of the stars could be easily observed. L'Isola di Pasqua si affaccia a Nord sull'Oceano Pacifico, a Sud … The most visible element in the culture was the production of massive moai statues that some believe represented deified ancestors. [55], Easter Island and surrounding islets, such as Motu Nui and Motu Iti, form the summit of a large volcanic mountain rising over 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) from the sea bed. Homepage-VITORCHIANO - Per celebrare i trent'anni, l'amministrazione comunale, in collaborazione con la Pro Loco, ha preparato una serie di iniziative sotto il titolo "Fratelli di pietra", per sottolineare il legame culturale e affettivo che unisce Vitorchiano a Rapa Nui … Easter Island's traditional language is Rapa Nui, an Eastern Polynesian language, sharing some similarities with Hawaiian and Tahitian. Around 1,000 sites with more than 4,000 petroglyphs are catalogued. One ahu with several moai was recorded on the cliffs at Rano Kau in the 1880s but had fallen to the beach before the Routledge expedition. Isla Salas y Gómez, 415 km (258 mi) to the east, is closer but is uninhabited. They were arrested by the government, and no injuries were reported.[49]. The clearance of the palms to make the settlements led to their extinction almost 350 years ago. I suoi enigmi sono la … The Polynesian rat, which the original settlers brought with them, played a very important role in the disappearance of the Rapa Nui palm. Studies have shown fractures along the bases of the statues in transport; these could have arisen from rocking the statue back and forth and placing great pressures on the edges. Rapa Nui è l’unico nome che i 5000 abitanti dell’isola le riconoscono. Lontana da tutto e da tutti, Rapa Nui … [17] A total of 887 monolithic stone statues have been inventoried on the island and in museum collections. [68] The toromiro tree (Sophora toromiro) was prehistorically present on Easter Island, but is now extinct in the wild. This was followed by a decrease in the number of bird bones as birds lost their nesting sites or became extinct. Others attribute this decline to overpopulation[citation needed] or the introduction of Europeans to the island and the diseases that commonly came with them like smallpox. Its presence on Easter Island (based on human remains associated with cooking sites, especially in caves) is supported by oral histories. Jared Diamond suggested that cannibalism took place on Easter Island after the construction of the moai contributed to environmental degradation when extreme deforestation destabilized an already precarious ecosystem. With the palm and the toromiro virtually gone, there was considerably less rainfall as a result of less condensation. None were left standing by the time of the arrival of the French missionaries in the 1860s. Rapa Nui (Isla de Pascua o Isola di Pasqua o Easter Island) è un lembo di terra vulcanica sperduto nelle vastità del Pacifico. This exemplified the introduction of private property into Rapa Nui. Tuberculosis, introduced by whalers in the mid-19th century, had already killed several islanders when the first Christian missionary, Eugène Eyraud, died from this disease in 1867. Shortly after the Dutch visit, from 1724 until 1750, the 'Otu 'Itu fought the Tu'u for control of the island. One theory is that the trees were used as rollers to move the statues to their place of erection from the quarry at Rano Raraku. The filling of an ahu was sourced locally (apart from broken, old moai, fragments of which have been used in the fill). As of 2011, Rapa Nui's main source of income derived from tourism, which focuses on the giant sculptures called moai. [31] Deforestation also caused erosion which caused a sharp decline in agricultural production. Finally, between 0.24 and 0.11 Ma, a 6.5 km fissure developed along a NE-SW trend, forming monogenetic vents and rhyolitic intrusions. This method is known to increase soil moisture while decreasing soil erosion from wind, effectively combating the climate conditions. From these samples, 22 no longer present on the island were shown to have existed at some time there. Benny Peiser[5] noted evidence of self-sufficiency when Europeans first arrived. [13], The phrase Te pito o te henua has been said to be the original name of the island since French ethnologist Alphonse Pinart gave it the romantic translation "the Navel of the World" in his Voyage à l'Île de Pâques, published in 1877. [35], The first recorded European contact with the island was on 5 April 1722, Easter Sunday, by Dutch navigator Jacob Roggeveen. [117] Indeed, Rapa Nui has been suffering processes of decline and Hispanicization, because the island is under the jurisdiction of Chile and is now home to a number of Chilean continentals, most of whom speak only Spanish. [40] From that point on, the island's population slowly recovered. However, the decipherment of rongorongo is an ongoing process and it is not yet clear whether Rongorongo is a form of writing or some other form of cultural expression. The Rapa Nui are the aboriginal Polynesian inhabitants of Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean. Precipitation averages 1,118 millimetres (44 inches) per year. Only about a dozen eventually returned to Easter Island, but they brought smallpox, which decimated the remaining population of 1,500. [10][11] The island's official Spanish name, Isla de Pascua, also means "Easter Island". The foundations of the houses were made of buried basalt slabs with holes for wooden beams to connect with each other throughout the width of the house. Genetic analysis performed by Erik Thorsby and other geneticists in 2007 revealed genetic markers of European and Amerindian origin that suggest that the Rapa Nui had European and Amerindian contributions to their DNA during or before the early 1800s.[7]. The ahu were usually adjacent to the marae or main central court where ceremonies took place, though on Easter Island, ahu and moai evolved to much greater size. However the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and the Göteborg Botanical Garden are jointly leading a scientific program to reintroduce the toromiro to Easter Island. Tapati Rapa Nui festival ("week festival" in the local language) is an annual two-week long festival celebrating Easter Island culture. Glyphs include pictographic and geometric shapes; the texts were incised in wood in reverse boustrophedon direction. [75] Other theories involve the use of "ladders" (parallel wooden rails) over which the statues could have been dragged. As of 2011[update] a special charter for the island was under discussion in the Chilean Congress. ated Rapa Nui MUMPA. Toro, representing the government of Chile, signed with Atamu Tekena, designated "King" by the Roman Catholic missionaries after the paramount chief and his heir had died. Lesser cones and other volcanic features include the crater Rano Raraku, the cinder cone Puna Pau and many volcanic caves including lava tubes. The 1982 population was 1,936. [37] Among those captured were the island's paramount chief, his heir, and those who knew how to read and write the rongorongo script, the only Polynesian script to have been found to date, although debate exists about whether this is proto-writing or true writing. A retaining rear wall several feet high, usually facing the sea, A front wall made of rectangular basalt slabs called, A fascia made of red scoria that went over the front wall (platforms built after 1300), A sloping ramp in the inland part of the platform, extending outward like wings, A pavement of even-sized, round water-worn stones called, A paved plaza before the ahu. The Rapanui sponsor an annual festival, the Tapati, held since 1975 around the beginning of February to celebrate Rapa Nui culture. He sent several pieces of genuine Rongorongo to his niece's husband, the German consul in Valparaíso, Chile. He worked to develop tourism on the island and was the principal informant for the British and German archaeological expeditions for the island. [26], According to oral traditions recorded by missionaries in the 1860s, the island originally had a strong class system: an ariki, or high chief, wielded great power over nine other clans and their respective chiefs.