Union Jack and Union Flag are used interchangeably to refer to the flag of the UK. [old info], Previously the flag was generally only flown on public buildings on days marking the birthdays of members of the Royal Family, the wedding anniversary of the monarch, Commonwealth Day, Accession Day, Coronation Day, the Queen's Official Birthday, Remembrance Sunday, and on the days of the State Opening and prorogation of Parliament. The Union Jack,[note 1][2][3] or Union Flag, is the national flag of the United Kingdom. Since she died childless and was unmarried, the crown was given to James VI who was her cousin and also the king of Scotland. The Union Jack is a transnational flag full of historical significance. This status was confirmed to an extent by the Merchant Shipping (Registration, etc.) Bicentennial celebrations, it was in … The Union Jack is worn at the masthead of a ship to indicate the presence of the Sovereign or an Admiral of the Fleet. The flag also has official status in Canada, by parliamentary resolution, where it is known as the Royal Union Flag. 2. If anything the jack-staff is named after the Union Jack - and not the other way around! Although there was some ambiguity regarding the legality of it being flown for any other purpose on civilian vessels, its use as an ensign or jack was established well in advance of the 1864 Act that designated the Red Ensign for merchant shipping. In 1606, King James VI ordered for the creation of a flag which bore the crosses of both St George and St Andrew. The error had been spotted by readers of the BBC News website who had contacted the BBC after seeing a photograph of the event.[37]. No parliamentary action would be necessary. However, when the flag is used as a ceremonial flag of Canada, the flag of the Canadian province/territory takes precedence before the Royal Union Flag. The Union Jack is a fine expression of unity as well as diversity. [8] The flag combines aspects of three older national flags: the red cross of St George for the Kingdom of England, the white saltire of St Andrew for Scotland and the red saltire of St Patrick to represent Ireland. It is so called because it combines the crosses of the three countries united under one Sovereign - the kingdoms of England and Wales, of Scotland and of Ireland (although since 1921 only Northern Ireland has been part of the United Kingdom). [22] On 12 April 1606, a new flag to represent this regal union between England and Scotland was specified in a royal decree, according to which the flag of England (a red cross on a white background, known as St George's Cross), and the flag of Scotland (a white saltire on a blue background, known as the saltire or St Andrew's Cross), would be joined together,[8] forming the flag of Great Britain and first union flag: By the King: Whereas, some differences hath arisen between Our subjects of South and North Britaine travelling by Seas, about the bearing of their Flagges: For the avoiding of all contentions hereafter. The current design of the flag dates back to 1801 during the Royal Decree after the union of the England and Ireland. [86] The Union Jack served as the formal flag for the various colonies of British North America, and remained as the formal flag of Canada after confederation. [100] Although a small number of Hongkongers seek direct British intervention into the matter, the majority of those that used the Union Flag or the colonial flag of Hong Kong during the protests do not hold such beliefs. The Day of the Opening of a Session of the Houses of Parliament. This is expressed by the phrases wide white top and broadside up. [clarification needed]. Miss McCaul’s tireless fundraising efforts began in 1903 with concerts, entertainment and events throughout the country. The continued use of the Union Jack as national flag became an issue in the 1920s, when the government proposed to introduce a National Flag of the Union. The Union Jack, or Union Flag, is the national flag of the United Kingdom.The flag also has official status in Canada, by parliamentary resolution, where it is known as the Royal Union Flag. Because the Union Flag is not symmetric, many people unknowingly hang it upside down - so here's a handy guide, read on. [33], The colour specifications for the colours Union Jack (royal) blue, Union Flag red and white are:[22]. Nations and colonies that have used the Union Flag at some stage have included Aden, Basutoland (now Lesotho), Barbados, Bechuanaland (now Botswana), Borneo, Burma, Canada, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), Cyprus, Dominica, British East Africa (Kenya Colony), Gambia, Gold Coast (Ghana), Grenada, Guiana, Hong Kong, Jamaica, Labuan (Malaysia), Lagos, Malta, Mauritius, Nigeria, Palestine, Penang (Malaysia), Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), Sierra Leone, Singapore, Somaliland, South Africa, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, Pre-partitioned India (present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar), Tanganyika, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, the United States, and Weihaiwei. and in King George III's proclamation of 1 January 1801 concerning the arms and flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland: And that the Union Flag shall be Azure, the Crosses Saltires of St. Andrew and St. Patrick Quarterly per Saltire, counterchanged Argent and Gules; the latter fimbriated of the Second, surmounted by the Cross of St. George of the Third, fimbriated as the Saltire : ...[18], When the first flag representing Britain was introduced on the proclamation of King James I in 1606,[19] it became known simply as the "British flag" or the "flag of Britain". From early in its life the Admiralty itself frequently referred to the flag as the Union Jack, whatever its use, and in 1902 an Admiralty circular announced that Their Lordships had decided that either name could be used officially. The Cross of St. George was succeeded by the first version of the Royal Union Flag, created in 1606 through the combination of the red Cross of St. George with the white saltire Cross of St. Andre… [60], A Dáil question in 1961 mooted raising the removal of the cross of St Patrick with the British government; Frank Aiken, the Irish minister for external affairs, declined to "waste time on heraldic disputations".[61]. The flag consists of three heraldic crosses. In 1980, the flag of Newfoundland was adopted as the new provincial flag, with the design for the new flag of Newfoundland being derived from the Union Flag. Australian Civil Aviation Ensign (1935-1948), Royal Australian Air Force Ensign (1948-1982), The flag in a white border occasionally seen on merchant ships was sometimes referred to as the Pilot Jack. [90] After which, vessels of the New Zealand government used a defaced blue ensign issued by the colonial government. The lack of any Welsh symbol or colours in the flag is due to Wales already being part of the Kingdom of England when the flag of Great Britain was created in 1606. The Queen's Harbour Master's flag, like the Pilot Jack, is a 1:2 flag that contains a white-bordered Union Flag that is longer than 1:2. The use of the Union Flag on land by the civilians has been permitted, but the use at sea has been restricted to only the military. [24] However, this assertion does not appear in any Reed's Nautical Almanac since 1993. The origins of the earlier flag of Great Britain date back to 1606. Hawaii, a state of the United States but located in the central Pacific, incorporates the Union Jack in its state flag. The term "Union Jack" refers to the flag being a union between three national flags. It was then estimated that the alteration would cost at least £2,000,000. La bandiera del Regno Unito (comunemente Union Flag o Union Jack) fu adottata nel 1801 in seguito all'atto di unione con il quale il Regno di Gran Bretagna e il Regno d'Irlanda si univano a formare il Regno Unito di Gran Bretagna e Irlanda.Derivata da una versione precedente adottata nel 1606, è anche stata la bandiera rappresentativa dell'Impero britannico. [99], However, the meaning behind the use of the foreign flags by pro-democracy protestors, including the Union Flag, remains disputed with protestors citing a variety of reasons for flying it. The drawing at the end of this letter was deliberately facetious, teasing her for going down-market, and in the accompanying letter he wrote, "Your title 'The Anglo Saxon' with its motto 'Blood is thicker than water' only needs the Union Jack & the Star Spangled Banner crossed on the cover to be suited to one of Harmsworth’s cheap Imperialist productions."[23][relevant? The UK has several national symbols some of which are unique to its constituent countries. [74], The current flag days where the Union Flag should be flown from government buildings throughout the UK are:[75], In addition, the Union Flag should be flown in the following areas on specified days:[75]. [63] He said the Union Jack currently only represented the other three UK nations, and Minister for Culture, Creative Industries and Tourism Margaret Hodge conceded that Lucas had raised a valid point for debate. There’s a prevalent urban myth that its … [22], According to the UK Flag Protocol, the order of precedence of flags in the United Kingdom is: the Royal Standards, the Union Flag, the flag of the host country (England, Scotland and Wales etc. [22], Winston Churchill, British Prime Minister from 1940 to 1945, referred to the flag of the United Kingdom as the Union Jack. On this day in history in 1606, the Union Jack was created. The British Army's flag is the Union Jack, but in 1938, a "British Army Non-Ceremonial Flag" was devised, featuring a lion on crossed blades with the St Edward's Crown on a red background. There’s a prevalent urban myth that its … The British Flag A flag containing three other flags. Some years ago there was a demand from Irish quarters that the blue ground of the golden harp on the royal standard should be changed to green. The flag does not have reflection symmetry due to the slight pinwheeling of the St Patrick's and St Andrew's crosses, technically the counterchange of saltires. Both terms are historically correct in the description of the national flag of the UK. The Union Jack - CLIL - History and Geography. Radburn, A. To remove all reference to Ireland from the present Union Jack and Royal Arms would be vastly more expensive.[57]. The Union Flag, or Union Jack, is the national flag of the United Kingdom. On 30 November, (St Andrew's Day), the Union Flag can be flown in Scotland only where a building has more than one flagpole—on this day the Saltire will not be lowered to make way for the Union Flag if there is only one flagpole. [64], In the run-up to the 2014 Scottish independence referendum, various non-official suggestions were made for how the flag could be redesigned without the St Andrew's Cross in the event that Scotland left the Union. [38] The 3:5 version is most commonly used by the British Army and is sometimes known as the War flag. [99], The use of foreign flags at the protests, including the Union Flag, has been cited multiple times by the central government of China as evidence for their claim that foreign interference is steering the protests in Hong Kong against the central government. One theory goes that for some years it would have been called just the "Jack", or "Jack flag", or the "King's Jack", but by 1674, while formally referred to as "His Majesty's Jack", it was commonly called the "Union Jack", and this was officially acknowledged. According to the Flag Institute, a membership-run vexillological charity,[12] "the national flag of the United Kingdom, the Crown Dependencies and Overseas Territories is the Union Flag, which may also be called the Union Jack. Nevertheless, a convention was soon established which accords most closely with the description. The actual flag, preserved in the National Maritime Museum, is a cruder approximation of the proper specifications; this was common in 18th and early 19th century flags.[44][45]. What Is The Meaning Behind The Colors of The Flag of The United Kingdom? For other uses, see, Flag speculation after Irish independence, It has been claimed that "Union Jack" was the name given to the flag flown on the ", Graham Bartram (born 1963), a British vexillologist who is, as of 2013, by the 1970s, "its current official dimension of l/30th the width of the flag". Appearing in later editions of Theatrum Scotiae, the North East View of Edinburgh Castle engraving depicts the Scotch (to use the appropriate adjective of that period) version of the Union Flag flying from the Palace block of the Castle. The Union will also appear in the crossover event called King in Black alongside other well known comic … Image based on the reproduction of Draft C published in “Perrin” plate IV. The Union Jack Club was founded by Miss Ethel McCaul, a nurse who served in the South African War at the turn of the 20thCentury. In 2008, MP Andrew Rosindell proposed a Ten Minute Rule bill to standardise the design of the flag at 3:5, but the bill did not proceed past the first reading. The flag has degree of status in some of the Commonwealth Countries like Canada where it is considered an official flag there by the parliamentary resolution. Wales was not recognized in the flag because it had been part of England since 1282. The word Jack was used before the 17th century as a description for the maritime bow flag. The Crown Dependencies are legally not part of the United Kingdom, and the Union Jack is not an official flag there. [86] The Union Flag remained as Canada's official flag until 1965; although from the late-19th century to 1965, the Canadian Red Ensign was also used as an informal flag of Canada. When the Union of South Africa was established in 1910, the Union Jack was treated as its official flag. The Union Flag has no official status in the United Kingdom, and there are no national regulations concerning its use or prohibitions against flag desecration. Ireland had been under English control since 1171 but had always stayed as a kingdom in personal union with the English crown. The Union Jack became the standard “Navy Jack” on June 14, 1777. This changed dramatically in 1603 on the death of Elizabeth I of England. These are used in cases where it is illegal to fly the Union Flag, such as at sea from a ship other than a British warship. [67] The Union Flag may also be flown from the yardarm to indicate that a court-martial is in progress, though these are now normally held at shore establishments. The word "jack" was in use before 1600 to describe the maritime bow flag. Various shades of blue have been used in the saltire over the years. Miss McCaul was determined that they should have the opportunity to do this and see London and all its sights. Union Jack. Similar ensigns are used by other countries (such as New Zealand and Australia) with the Union Flag in the canton. All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2020 worldatlas.com, The Story Of The Union Jack: The National Flag Of The United Kingdom. Hawaii's flag represents the only current use of the Union Jack in any American state flag. Because the Queen died unmarried and childless, the English crown passed to the next available heir, her cousin James VI, King of Scotland. [53] On the North Prospect of the City of Edenburgh engraving, the flag is indistinct. The Union Flag was used as the flag of Canada until it was re-adopted as a ceremonial flag, and the Maple Leaf flag made the official national flag in 1965. [115] Many music artists have used the Union Jack, ranging from rock artists The Rolling Stones, The Who, The Jam, Sex Pistols, David Bowie, John Lennon, Paul McCartney, Freddie Mercury, Morrissey, Oasis, Iron Maiden, and Def Leppard, to the pop girl group the Spice Girls. The Union Flag can be found in the canton of several of the ensigns flown by vessels and aircraft of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories. [73] While consultation on new guidelines is under way, the decision to fly the flag may be made by each government department. It is called the Union Flag because the United Kingdom is a union England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. ", "We Stand on Guard for Whom? The Royal Union flag alongside the flag of Canada and the flag of British Columbia, at Stanley Park in Vancouver. This is due to different specifications for different types of media (for example, screen and print). More recently, Reed's Nautical Almanac (1990 edition) unambiguously stated: "The Union Flag, frequently but incorrectly referred to as the Union Jack, ..." and later: "8. Der Union Jack ist eine Überlagerung der englischen Flagge (rotes Kreuz auf weißem Grund, das sogenannte Georgskreuz), der schottischen Flagge (weißes Andreaskreuz auf blauem Grund) und der nordirischen Flagge (rotes Andreaskreuz auf weißem Hintergrund, das sogenannte Patrickskreuz).. Farben. It was then adopted by land forces as well, although the blue field used on land-based versions more closely resembled that of the blue of the flag of Scotland. [5][6][note 2]. The present design of the Union Flag dates from a Royal proclamation following the union of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801. The Union Flag or Union Jack Flag is the official flag of the UK which includes Northern Ireland. The flag was also used by the US in its first flag. Union Nationality and Flags Act 1927 (renamed 'Flags Act 1927' in 1949). In 1908, a government minister stated, in response to a parliamentary question, that "the Union Jack should be regarded as the National flag". [20] Reinforcing the distinction the King's proclamation of the same day concerning the arms and flag of the United Kingdom (not colours at sea) called the new flag "the Union Flag". The Royal Navy's flag code book, BR20 Flags of All Nations, states that both 1:2 and 3:5 versions are official. [92][93] This dual arrangement was effective from 31 May 1928. The Commissioners' flag of the Northern Lighthouse Board continues to use the pre-1801 design in the canton. The flag of the Municipal Council of Shanghai International Settlement in 1869 contained multiple flags to symbolize the countries have participated in the creation and management of this enclave in the Chinese city of Shanghai. Baton Rouge was a British colony from the time of the Seven Years' War until the end of the American Revolutionary War, when it was captured by Spanish forces. The royal proclamation gave no distinctive name to the new flag. Since she died childless and was unmarried, the crown was given to James VI who was her cousin and also the king of Scotland. In 1970, the white-bordered Union Flag ceased to be the signal for a pilot, but references to it as national colours were not removed from the current Merchant Shipping Act and it was legally interpreted as a flag that could be flown on a merchant ship, as a jack if desired. 'South Africa's Dual Flag Arrangement, 1928-1957' in, Lord Howe's action, or the Glorious First of June, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Minister for Culture, Creative Industries and Tourism, Flags Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2000, Services in the Internal Market Directive 2006, List of countries and territories with the Union Jack displayed on their flag, flag of the British Indian Ocean Territory, flag of the United States of the Ionian Islands, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "The official website of The British Monarchy", "Statement by the Hon. The current flag has a dark navy blue which traces its origin from the Royal Navy’s Blue Squadron. England and Scotland remained independent kingdoms in the 17th century up to the passing on of Queen Elizabeth I of England in 1603. Wales had no explicit recognition in the Union Jack as it had been a part of the Kingdom of England since being annexed by Edward I of England in 1282 and its full integration by the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542, and was therefore represented by the flag of England. Although the colour schemes are official, not all of the colours are completely congruent. [26][27] In 2006, Sandra White, a Member of the Scottish Parliament, caused a furore when the term was used in a press release under her name. The ground of the current Union Flag is a deep "navy" blue (Pantone 280), which can be traced to the colour used for the Blue Ensign of the Royal Navy's historic "Blue Squadron". [8], A proclamation issued by King George III at the time of the Union of 1801 concerned flags at sea and repeatedly referred to "Ensigns, Flags, Jacks, and Pendants" and forbade merchant vessels from wearing "Our Jack, commonly called the Union Jack" nor any pendants or colours used by the King's ships. The Union Nationality and Flags Act 1927 provided that the flags of the Union were (a) the Union Jack, to denote the association with the other members of the British Commonwealth of Nations, and (b) the new National Flag. As the two flags had to be the same size, it meant that the Union Jack was made in the ratio 2:3 rather than the usual 1:2. To fly the flag correctly, the white of St Andrew is above the red of St Patrick in the upper hoist canton (the quarter at the top nearest to the flag-pole). The flag is also used in some of the smaller UK overseas territories as the official flag. Whether the term Union Jack applies only when used as a jack flag on a ship is a matter of debate. Also in the United States, the Union Flag of 1606 is incorporated into the flag of Baton Rouge, the capital city of Louisiana. The Cross of St. George was succeeded by the first version of the Royal Union Flag, created in 1606 through the combination of the red Cross of St. George with the white saltire Cross of St. Andre… The parliamentary resolution passed on 18 December 1964 assigned two purposes for the Union Flag in Canada, as a flag representing the United Kingdom, and as an official ceremonial flag of Canada. Thus, there is a correct side up. The interior core of the Union Jack is the English flag, represented by the Cross of St. George the patron saint of England. [62] The campaign is now defunct. [21], The size and power of the Royal Navy internationally at the time could also explain why the flag was named the "Union Jack"; considering the navy was so widely utilised and renowned by the United Kingdom and colonies, it is possible that the term jack occurred because of its regular use on all British ships using the jackstaff (a flag pole attached to the bow of a ship). Various other designs for a common flag were drawn up following the union of the two Crowns in 1603, but were rarely, if ever, used. In Australia, the Union flag was systematically replaced by the current national flag through the Flag Act of 1953. [87][88] The Royal Union Flag may also be formally flown alongside the flag of Canada at federal locations in Canada in relation to ceremonies, anniversaries, and other events relating to the Canadian Armed Forces, or other forces in the Commonwealth. "[13] The institute also notes: .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}, it is often stated that the Union Flag should only be described as the Union Jack when flown in the bows of a warship, but this is a relatively recent idea. There is reason to think that cloth flags of this design were employed during the 17th century for unofficial use on Scottish vessels at sea. [94][93], The flying of the Union Jack alongside the National Flag ended on 6 April 1957. The term Union Jack possibly dates from Queen Anne's time (r. 1702–14), but its origin is uncertain. All of the coloured ensigns contain the union flag as part of the design. James Montgomery FalsworthBrian FalsworthJoseph ChapmanKenneth CrichtonVampire Avengers(Earth-3931)Union JacksEarth X(Earth-9997)

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